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Malcolm Le Grice
The term 'expanded cinema' suggests multi-screen work, installation, elements of performance or the use of different technologies.

Le Grice has continually sought to explore the parameters of cinematic practice, but rather than the drive for 'synaesthesia' that Gene Youngblood proposed in Expanded Cinema (1970) he has focused on an investigation of the material and experiential properties of the medium.

From his earliest films Le Grice has been intent on accessing and manipulating every aspect of filmmaking. Pieces such as Yes No Maybe Maybe Not (1967), Berlin Horse and Threshold thoroughly explore optical printing: sequences are numerously repeated, they involve complicated superimposition and positive and negative images challenge each other for dominance. In the multi-screen versions of these films the composite imagery and juxtapositions are made even more complex.

In the essay Real Time/Space (1972) Le Grice proposed that, in terms of the characteristics of a work that an audience directly experienced, 'the primacy of the projection event' could not be underestimated. While suggesting that conventional projection situations had been stretched to their limits in works by David Crosswaite, Birgit and Wilhelm Hein, Mike Leggett and Tony Hill, Le Grice also exercised his own work in the context of exhibitions such as the Filmaktion shows in the early 1970s. In addition, many of his works from this period were made while working closely, and exhibiting with Gill Eatherly, Annabel Nicholson and William Raban.

Horror Film 1 is Le Grice's most dynamic approach to the projection event. While standing directly in front of the screen, with arms outstretched, his reach marks the dimensions of three overlapping projected colour fields. As he backs away, through the audience and the space between projectors and screen, his shadow becomes the figure of measurement. The nearer he gets to the three projectors the more prominent his three shadows become, and in each of the penumbra complicated patterns of colour mixing occur. Many of Le Grice's films incorporate colour mixing, layering and superimposition, but in Horror Film these characteristics evolve in the presence of the audience.

In his interest in technology beyond film, Le Grice's move to video has sustained the project of an expanded cinema. There are a number of similarities to the way in which he has used both film and video: the incisive qualities of his editing is retained; optical printing has found an analogy in processing digital imagery; and the seven pieces in The Cyclops Cycle (1998-2003) are a further investigation of the potential in multi-screen configurations. In addition, footage is often reworked and reused in both his film and video work. Threshold, for example, utilises the sentry guards that previously appeared in Castle 2 (1968) and the concentric circles that were originally seen in Your Lips (1970). Amongst his videos, Even The Cyclops Pays The Ferryman (1998) incorporates material from Chronos Fragmented (1995) and it also includes fleeting imagery that references Berlin Horse. In working through combinations and configurations, and across technologies, Le Grice has always looked to avoid limiting factors.

Still from Threshold by Malcolm Le Grice, 1972
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